Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Annie Besant

Annie Besant came into prominence in the political field with Home Rule as India's goal and that happened in the second decade of the 20th century.
She purchased the Madras, Standard, changed its name to New India and published it from July 14, 1914, under her own editorial control. She was also editing the Commonweal, a weekly paper, first published in January of that year. In 1916, she started her Home Rule League six months after Tilak had founded his League in Maharashtra.
The New India was a fiery champion of Home Rule for India and Annie Besant's forthright attacks on the Government of the day enhanced the popularity of the paper. When proceedings were instituted against the paper during the Governorship of Lord Pentland, she appeared before the High Court herself and argued the first case for her paper. Dr. C.P. Ramaswami Aiyar argued the other cases on behalf of New India. The New India was asked to furnish a security of Rs. 2,000 in the first instance which was forfeited and a second security of Rs. 10,000 was demanded of the paper.
Before and during the internment of Annie Besant, Mr. P.K. Telang was chosen to be the editor and he continued the paper with the assistance of Arundale, B.P. Wadia, Dr. C.P. Ramaswami Aiyer. The circulation of the New India increased substantially during the period of internment. Annie Besant, both personally and in the editorial columns of the paper, set her face against Gandhi's non-cooperation and satyagraha campaign. After her well known saying that brickbats (from the agitators during Gandhi's mass campaigns) cannot but be met with bullets, the circulation of New India declined with a crash.
Annie Besant favoured the total repeal of the Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act of 1908 as well as Indian Press Act of 1910 and was of the opinion that the Press and Registration of Books Act should be amended to require a declaration by the editor. She was a strong critic of direct action and of Gandhi's writings in Young India.
In sum, Annie Bessant stood for the Indian cause. She made India her second home. She came to India in 1893 at the age of 46 and engaged herself in the noble task of social reconstruction, already started by prominent Indian leaders: she became an added force to the social movement. She became so popular that she was elected President of Indian National Congress in 1917. Soon after her arrival in 1893, she lectured extensively all over Southern India. In 1894, she covered the Northern Region on a similar campaign. Her topics invariably were related to the Hindu religion and the rich Indian culture and she tried to infuse in her audiences the lessons of fearlessness and truth. She settled at Varanasi (then called Benaras) in 1895.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

വാക്കുകളേക്കാള്‍ നിറങ്ങളുള്ള ജീവിതം — കെ. പി. മുരളീധരന്‍

(Click on the image to view it in high res./to download it as an image file)




RUDYARD KIPLING

Mention may justifiably be made here to Rudyard Kipling who worked on the Civil and Military Gazette and the Pioneer and at the same time, produced his early literary works. Born in India in 1865, Kipling returned to India at the age of 17 to join the editorial staff of the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, the only other member being Stephen Wheeler who was in full charge. He threw himself with enthusiasm into his work which consisted of nearly all the proof-reading and the re-writing of dull government reports into readable articles. He took a month off in the summer, which he spent in the hills in Simla, and back he was at his work in the heat of May. A number of his poems was published in the Civil and Military Gazette. Soon, those poems were published in book form. Rudyard Kipling had the first edition of Departmental Duties and other Verses published under his own supervision. It sold out in a few weeks and he entrusted the second edition to Thacker Spink & Co. of Kolkata, who thereafter published all his later works.
True to his well meaning disposition to journalism and writing, as if specially sent by God to work and guide others in the field, Kipling was none too happy with his position on the Civil and Military Gazettee and the proprietors of the Gazette and the Pioneer were not satisfied with the paper as it was then produced. A new editor, was taken in. Robinson, and he and Kipling introduced many changes in the Gazette including short stories and light verse. One of Kipling's heroes was Lord Roberts but that did not prevent him from writing in the Pioneer, to which he was transferred in 1887, that the General was putting too many of his friends and relatives in positions of military authority. This almost landed Kipling in trouble, but he lived it down and took full advantage of the unlimited space available to him in the Allahabad paper. The atmosphere of the Pioneer was heavy and allowed little room for Kipling's light verse. He, nevertheless, kept up his literary activities in the little spare time he had.
His frivolous treatment of government news for publication in the Pioneer embarrassed the proprietors and they looked on him as a liability rather than an asset. In order to keep the paper free of his mischief, they sent him off on a roving mission to other parts of India. Towards the end of 1888, he was badly in need of money and he sold his rights in his books and went off on a roving mission again, this time to Kolkata, Moulmein, to Penang and Singapore, to Hong Kong, Osaka, Yokahama and finally to San Francisco. While in the United States, he interviewed Mark Twain for his paper. He landed in England and a while later, he set out for Africa in 1891. He was back in Lahore for Christmas, but he left for London again immediately after. He traveled for seven years, writing for his paper and then settled down to a quiet life in England. Right through his travels, he sent accounts to his papers some of which probably did not see print, but Kipling's name is remembered in the office of the Civil and Military Gazette today, a room being set apart where Kipling's relics are preserved, the Pioneer sold away some of his first editions for a rupee each and they drifted away into the second-hand book shops from which some of them were retrieved, one of them being sold in the United States in the thirties for £2000.

Annie Besant

Annie Besant came into prominence in the political field with Home Rule as India's goal and that happened in the second decade of the 20th century.
She purchased the Madras, Standard, changed its name to New India and published it from July 14, 1914, under her own editorial control. She was also editing the Commonweal, a weekly paper, first published in January of that year. In 1916, she started her Home Rule League six months after Tilak had founded his League in Maharashtra.
The New India was a fiery champion of Home Rule for India and Annie Besant's forthright attacks on the Government of the day enhanced the popularity of the paper. When proceedings were instituted against the paper during the Governorship of Lord Pentland, she appeared before the High Court herself and argued the first case for her paper. Dr. C.P. Ramaswami Aiyar argued the other cases on behalf of New India. The New India was asked to furnish a security of Rs. 2,000 in the first instance which was forfeited and a second security of Rs. 10,000 was demanded of the paper.
Before and during the internment of Annie Besant, Mr. P.K. Telang was chosen to be the editor and he continued the paper with the assistance of Arundale, B.P. Wadia, Dr. C.P. Ramaswami Aiyer. The circulation of the New India increased substantially during the period of internment. Annie Besant, both personally and in the editorial columns of the paper, set her face against Gandhi's non-cooperation and satyagraha campaign. After her well known saying that brickbats (from the agitators during Gandhi's mass campaigns) cannot but be met with bullets, the circulation of New India declined with a crash.
Annie Besant favoured the total repeal of the Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act of 1908 as well as Indian Press Act of 1910 and was of the opinion that the Press and Registration of Books Act should be amended to require a declaration by the editor. She was a strong critic of direct action and of Gandhi's writings in Young India.
In sum, Annie Bessant stood for the Indian cause. She made India her second home. She came to India in 1893 at the age of 46 and engaged herself in the noble task of social reconstruction, already started by prominent Indian leaders: she became an added force to the social movement. She became so popular that she was elected President of Indian National Congress in 1917. Soon after her arrival in 1893, she lectured extensively all over Southern India. In 1894, she covered the Northern Region on a similar campaign. Her topics invariably were related to the Hindu religion and the rich Indian culture and she tried to infuse in her audiences the lessons of fearlessness and truth. She settled at Varanasi (then called Benaras) in 1895.

MALAYALAM JOURNALISM

MALAYALAM AND OTHER LANGUAGES JOURNALISM

In Malayalam, as in Tamil, the printing press was introduced by Christian missionaries towards the end of the 15th century and the first publications were missionary tracts and religious propaganda literature and although considerable printing must have been done in the interval, the first book printed and published in Malayalam in 1772 came from Rome and regular types in place of the earlier woodcuts followed. The only newspapers published in the early period were Vignyana Nikshepam (1840) published from Kottayam and Paschima Tharaka (1862) from Cochin. No newspapers were published until a much later period when newspapers had appered in Punjabi, Oriya and Assamese.

Malayalam Publications

Still in publication today as a weekly is the Sathyanadam started as a fortnightly in 1876 in Ernakulam, the then capital of Cochin state. It was edited by Father Louis and associated with it was C. Varkey who brilliantly served the paper and remained connected, therefore, with journalism in Kerala for almost half a century.
Other important papers and periodicals of Kerala are:
Kerala Patrika was started in Kozhikode (Calicut) by C. Kunchirama Menon. The Kerala Sanchari with C.P. Govindan Nair as proprietor editor. The Manorama edited by Kunhikrishna Menon. Well remembered in Kerala is K. Ramakrishna Pillai for his fearless writing as editor . of the monthly Kerala and the weekly Malayalee and later, the Swadeshabhimani. He was deported from Travancore in 1910 and lived thereafter in Malabar and died there in 1916.
The Malayala Manorama of Kottayam, one of the leading dailies of Kerala today, was founded 135 years ago by Kandathi Varghese Mappilai who brought an instinct for news, keen business acumen and wide experience of men and affairs to bear on the conduct of the paper.
Started in Quilon as a weekly about this time was the Malayalee which is now published as a daily. It was started by K. Ramakrishna Pillai. The Kayana Kaumudi was started in 1905, which published news, views and correspondence all in verse. The Nasrani Deepika and the Kerala Kesari edited by Pallath Kunjunni Achan and the Yogaksheman edited by V.S. Nambudiripad were well known publications. The Mathrubhumi was started as a triweekly in 1923 and is now being published as daily and weekly (illustrated) and commands the largest sale in Kerala. The paper was founded by K. Madhavan Nair and P. Achutan. A weekly of importance published from Quilon in 1922 was Swarat edited by A.K. Pillai. Another paper which had a brief existence during this period but which gained popularity was the Al Amin published from Kozhikode (Calicut) and edited by Janab Abdur Rahiman. The Malayala Rajyam was also started from Quilon at the same time and it is still in publication.
Malayali journalism has had the advantage and support of brilliant band of writers from the earliest times, the prominent among them, whose names have been mentioned in this brief review, are still remembered with appreciation by the people of Kerala. It has not been possible in this brief review to refer to all the newspapers published in Kerala, which include 23 dailies, some 50 weeklies and other periodicals. Journalism in Malayalam is not confined to Kerala, but extends to countries where there are concentrationg of Malayali residents. Like Gujaratis, the Malayalese business men also went to different countries.

MALAYALAM JOURNALISM
Mathrubhumi (Kozhikode, 1923); Proprietors:
Mathrubhumi Papers and Publications Ltd. It is the leading paper in that language.
Chandrika (Kozhikode),, Proprietor: Abu Baker. Malayala Manorma (Kottayam, 1888), Proprietors: Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd. Deepika (Kottayam, 1887); Proprietor: St. Joseph's Monastery. Kerala Kaumudi (Thiruvananthapuram, 1911); Proprietor: K. Sukumaran. Malayala Rajyam (Quilon, 1929); Proprietor: L.N.S. Nair. Powradhwani (Kottayam, 1939): Proprietor: C.M. Karuvelithra.
Express (Trichur), Proprietor: K. Krishnan. Deshbhimani (Kozhikode); Proprietors: Communist Party of India. Deshbhimani (Kozhikode); Proprietors: Swaraj Industries Ltd.
Malabar Mail (Ernakulam, 1936); Proprietor: Archbishop of Ernakulam. Powrashakti (Kozhikode, 1944); Proprietors: United Printers Ltd. Powrakshalam (Thiruvananthapuram); Proprietor: K.M. Chacko. Kerala Bhushanam (Kottayam, 1944); Proprietor: A.V. George.Deenabandhu (Ernakulam, 1942); Proprietor: K.P, Madhavan Nair. Deepan (Ernakulam, 1931); Proprietor: Thomas Cheryan. Prabhatham (Quillon, 1934): Propreitor: Thangal Kunju Mudaliar.
Four other papers, the Gomathi, the Malayati, the Navalokam, and the Veerakesari, complete the list of daily papers published in Malayalam.

Malayalam Weeklies

Malayalam weeklies are the smallest in number as compared with those published in other important Indian languages. The circulation average is higher in this language, than in the others and some 16 of a total of 37 are listed below:

Name                    Place                     Proprietor
Dakshina Bharati       Thiruvananthapuram B. Narayana Pillai
Deepika Illustrated Kottayam                   V. Rev. Friar, St. Jopseph
Weekly
Dosamitran             Cannanore               Desamitran       Printing
Publishing Co. Ltd.
Janasakthi                      Fort Cochin              P.K. Kannan
Jayakeralam                  Chennai                      Janatha Printing & Publishing
Co. Ltd.
Kaumudi                 Thiruvananthapuram K. Balakrishnan
Labour                   Pattanakad              R. Anthony
Nava Sakthi            Balaramapuram         G. Raman Pillai
Navayugam            Trichur                            K. Damodaran
Neethiman             Mauvattupuzha          K. Kunjunni Pillai
Sahakaranayugam Thiruvananthapuram Travancore               Co-operative
Institute Ltd.
Sakhav                  Allepey                   G. Gopinathan Nair
Thozhilali                        Trichur                              V. Rev. Fr. Zacharia Vazhpilly
Vikasam                Cannanore                K. Govindan
Yuva Keralam          Kozhikode                C.K. Abubacker

JAMES AUGUSTUS HICKY

Judging from the historical facts, we have to give credit to the British rule for the advent of Journalism in India. The newspaper, therefore, came to India as an lien product, which was in fact forced upon us. This is because even our great nationalist leaders in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not entertain the idea of learning English (called Mlechhas' language). The English were contemptuously referred to as Mlechhas—the depraved/degraded people whose moral standards were considered abysmally low and despised.
The East India Company, which was ruling the country, was not favourably disposed to the press; the officials of the Company were suspicious of journalists and newspapers from the very beginning. The officials were intolerant of any kind of criticism. The notional support that the press in India got emanated from the control of press by the Englishmen who drew strength from the power of press in England.

It was James Augustus Hicky who earned the distinction of launching in India the first English newspaper. The first publication of Hicky came to the stalls/readers on January 29, 1780 in Kolkata. It was named Bengal Gazette alias Calcutta General Advertiser. The paper had two sheets with three columns on each page and it was published weekly. The paper declared it as a "weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none."
The contents of the paper included items taken from English newspapers in England, letters from local nd rural readers, items of gossip and scandal of interest to the European community. Hicky had reserved to himself a column to talk to his readers directly. There was also a poet's column in his paper. The paper was called as scurrilous and witty. Hicky and his paper came under extraordinary surveillance by the administration. The paper earned the enmity of Warren Hastings, the Governor-General and other high ups, most notable being Chief Justice, Elizah Impey. The administration was very annoyed because of the undesirable reporting—about pivate lives of the persons in high positions and even others like soldiers. Hicky lampooned Hastings and called him, "Sir F. Wronghead", "the Great Moghul" and the "Dictator."
Hicky reported an imaginary concert programme and linked the name of Sir Elijah Impey with a contract for a bridge that had gone to his cousin. All the impotant or notable personalities of Kolkata appeared in Hicky's Gazette with nicknames. There was one smart, intelligent lady who was reported repeatedly and thereby she kept the "gossip" busy for at least ten years; Miss Eruma Wrangham was mentioned under various nicknames for gossips, and she seemed to enjoy the malice. In Hicky's columns, she appeared under various names—"Chinsurah Belle", or "Turban Conquest" or "Hookah Turban", etc.
A rival paper, Indian Gazette, appeared in the world of jounalism in Kolkata, in the same year, 1780,, in which Hicky introduced his Gazette; the rival paper gave setback to Hicky. The rival paper was much better in quality; it had four pages of 16 inches long, the types were better; it had three columns and it was well printed. On the other hand, Hicky's paper was having two pages of shorter size, crudely printed, having only two columns. Hicky found that his customers were deserting him. In a fit of anger, he attacked Swedish missionary, John Zachariah Kiermander; Hicky suspected him of having supplied types to his rival. He also attacked the proprietors of Indian Gazette, Peter Read and B. Messinck, salt merchant and theatrical producer, respectively. As if it were not enough, the authorities granted Indian Gazette postal facilities; the same facilities were denied to Hicky's paper.
Hicky complained to his readers about the step-motherly treatment meted out to his paper. It was suggested to him that he should approach Mrs. Hastings for her intervention, which he rejected, saying: "there is something so sneaking and treacherous in going clandestinely to fawn and take advantage of a good natured woman to draw her into a promise to getting that done which I knew would be highly improper to ask her husband, though his unbounded love for his wife would induce him to comply with."
Hicky and Hastings were not on good terms with each other. Hicky was habitually, and with malice and ridicule, reporting and giving publicity to the social life of the European community in Kolkata. While announcing marriages and engagements, he also published news of engagements anticipated and he utilized this to hit those he disliked.
After giving him long tether for considerable time, and ignoring the suggestions of strong action against Hichy from the members of his Council, Hastings finally took action against him for defamation on two counts in June, 1781. Hicky was convicted and sentenced to two years' imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 2,000. The Chief Justice awarded damages to Hastings of Rs. 500 but Hastings waived it. Although Hicky was in prison, his paper continued to appear regularly, and mysteriously his column too appeared in the same defiant tone.
The paper had great public support. Hastings took action second time in March, 1782. This resulted in confiscation of his types: on appeal to the Clerk of King, the King's judges released his types. This decision was hailed by Hicky as protecting the liberty of the press. But that was the end of Hicky's Gazette, which had barely a life of two years.
Hicky had done some printing job for the Company—he printed on order 16,800 sheets—and submitted bill for value of Rs. 35,092. The authorities said that the full number of sheets were not supplied and the printing was also defective. The payment, was approved for only Rs. 6,711. Hicky wrote about his claim to Hastings. Hastings ordered payment of Rs. 6,711 on the condition that he gave acquittal for all demands, that is for full and final paymnt. Hicky was adamant as before and insisted on full payment. So, he did not accept the offer. Towards the end of his life, Hicky consented to the offer of lower payment due to extreme penury faced by his large family while he was in prison, but it took long time to get the money.
If Hicky was indomitable, Hastings was equally, if not more, revengeful. With the aid of the Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Elizah Impey, he resolved to kill Hicky's paper. He instituted suit after suit against Hicky and at last succeeded in crushing both the paper and its editor.

FIRST NEWSPAPERS IN INDIA

It is not surprising, in the circumstances, that no English newspaper had come into being in India although the Company had installed a printing press in Mumbai in 1674 and provided a generous supply of types and paper. Another press was installed in Chennai in 1772. An official printing press was established in Kolkata in 1779. It is significant, in this context, that the first attempt to start a newspaper in Kolkata was made in 1776 by an European, Mr. William Bolts. He had resigned from the Company's service earlier that year after censure by the Court of Directors for having engaged himself in private trade against the code of discipline prescribed by the Company for its employees. The notice of his intention to embark on the printing enterprise made it known that he had "in manuscript many things to communicate which most intimately concerned every individual." This evidently gave rise to alarm in official quarters. He was directed to quit Bengal and proceed to Chennai, and from there, to take his passage to Europe. No attempt was made by any public spirited man to emulate Mr. Bolts' initiative for 12 years until 1780 when James Augustus Hicky ventured into Journalism, mainly because of his high connections in the East India Company administration.
The new editors trod warily the trail, which Hicky had blazed for them. The India Gazette had given undertakings as demanded by the Company. The Calcutta Gazette was an official publication. The Bengal Journal offered to publish all Government advertisements free of charge. Nothing is known of the fate of the Calcutta Chronicle beyond the fact that issues of the paper are to be found in the Imperial Library, Kolkata, (between 1782 and 1790). The three other papers seem to have been conducted without any incident till 1791, except that in April 1785, the publication of Orders and Resolutions of the Council under the title of "General Orders" was banned.

A Rare HQ Pic of Newbie Malayalam Actress Ann Augustine from Mathrubhumi Newspaper (Nagaram)



Ann Augustine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ann Augustine is an Indian film actress hailing from Kerala.
She is the daughter of veteran Malayalam actor Augustine.
Her debut film was "Elsamma-Enna-Aankutty".
Ann is residing at Calicut City.
She made her debut with Kunchacko Boban.

Filmography

YearTitleRoleCo-starsDirector
2010Elsamma Enna AankuttyElsammaKunchacko BobanIndrajithLal Jose
2010Three KingsKunchacko BobanJayasuryaIndrajithSamvrutha SunilSandhyaV. K. Prakash
2010Arjunan SakshiPrithvirajRanjith Shankar

Ann Augustine
Born
Ann Augustine
30th July 1988
Kozhikode
Residence
Kozhikode
Other names
Vicky, Vix.
Occupation
Actress
Years active
2010–present
Spouse
None
Parents
Augustine, Hansamma